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George Marshall

From Wakipedia, a free encyclopedia

Geroge Catlett Marshall, Jr. (December 31, 1880—October 16, 1959) was an American military leader who later went on to be a national leader serving the U.S. President and his country in different roles. He was a five-star general and the very first General of the U.S. Army. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953 for the famous "Marshall Plan."

George Marshall was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. He was descended from a Virginia family and graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI). After graduation, he immediately entered the US. Army. He was initially a Second Lieutenant but later became a great military leader. During the first World War (1917), he was stationed in France. He worked with General John J. Pershing and helped to come up with the plan that defeated the German Army on the Western Front. This was a very famous battle and important victory.

After the first World War, Marshall held many different leadership positions. He was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1936. He was later promoted to General and sworn in as the Army Chief of Staff on September 1, 1939. This is they day the German Army invaded Poland. It was an early event in the second World War.

Under his command, the U.S. Army grew very large during the second World War. It grew from 189,000 soldiers to more than 8,000,000 in only three years. He was a strong military planner and well respected. He was given credit for the plan that ended the Second World War by the British leader, Winston Churchill. In 1944, he was promoted to a five-star general and was the first-ever General of the Army. Time Magazine named him "Man of the Year" for 1943.

He continued to serve in the Army until 1947 when President Harry Truman appointed him the U.S. Secretary of State. In this position, George Marshall created a plan for helping Europe rebuild after the second World War. It is known as the "Marshall Plan" and was later awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1953. Time Magazine named him "Man of the Year" again in 1953.

Marshall later served one year as the Secretary of Defense and was also head of the American National Red Cross for one year. Although he had many great military victories, he was criticized for not sending important information to the Army commander in Hawaii that may have prevented the bombing of Pearl Harbor. He was also unsuccessful negotiating in China. Despite his efforts, the Chinese Civil War got worse and the Communists took over the country in 1949.

George C. Marshall lived in a home known as Dodona Manor in Leesburg, Virginia. He died in 1959 and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia.

George C. Marshall

George C. Marshall

50th United States Secretary of State

In office
January 21, 1947– January 20, 1949

President: Harry S. Truman
Preceded by:
James F. Byrnes
Succeeded by: Dean Acheson

3rd United States Secretary of Defense

In office
September 21, 1950– September 12, 1951

President: Harry S. Truman
Preceded by:
Louis A. Johnson
Succeeded by: Robert A. Lovett

15th United States Army Chief of Staff

In office
September 1, 1939– November 18, 1945

President: Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by:
Malin Craig
Succeeded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower

1st United States General of the Army

Promoted on December 16, 1944

President: Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by:
Succeeded by: Douglas MacArthur

Personal details

Born: December 31, 1880, Uniontown, Pennsylvania
Died: October 16, 1959 (aged 78), Washington, DC
Political party: Nonpartisan
Spouse(s): Katherine Boyce Tupper; Elizabeth Carter Cole
Alma Mater: Virginia Military Institute
Profession: Soldier, Statesmen

Signature: Marshall Signature

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